Dual-tasking


Effects of Single-Task Versus Dual-Task Training on Balance Performance in Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

Patima Silsupadol, PT, PhD, Anne Shumway-Cook, PT, PhD, Vipul Lugade, MS, Paul van Donkelaar, PhD,
Li-Shan Chou, PhD, Ulrich Mayr, PhD, Marjorie H. Woollacott, PhD

Summary:
Dual-task training is effective in improving gait speed under dual-task conditions in elderly participants with balance impairment. Training balance under single-task conditions may not generalize to balance control during dual- task contexts. Explicit instruction regarding attentional focus is an important factor contributing to the rate of learning and the retention of the dual-task training effect.

Year study was published: 2009

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Association of Dance-Based Mind-Motor Activities With Falls and Physical Function Among Healthy Older Adults A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Michèle Mattle, MSc, MPH; Patricia O. Chocano-Bedoya, MD, PhD; Melanie Fischbacher, MSc; Ursina Meyer, PhD; Lauren A. Abderhalden, PhD; Wei Lang, PhD; Richard Mansky, MD; Reto W. Kressig, MD; Johann Steurer, MD; E. John Orav, PhD; Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari, MD, DrPH

Summary:
Are dance-based mind-motor activities associated with benefits for fall prevention and better physical functions, such as balance, mobility, and strength, in healthy adults 65 years and older? This systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 randomized clinical trials found that dance based mind-motor interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction (37%) in fall risk and a statistically significant reduced rate (31%) of falls. There was a statistically significant association between favorable physical function outcomes and dance-based mind-motor activities for participants in the dance-based mind-motor intervention groups compared with those in the control groups.

Dance-based mind-motor activities may help fall prevention efforts in healthy older adults.

Year study was published: 2020

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Dual-task exercises in older adults: A structured review of current literature

Luz A. Varela-Vásquez, Eduard Minobes-Molina, Javier Jerez-Roig


Summary:

Considerable attention has recently focused on the role of dual-task exercises (DT) in the older adult. The aim was to conduct a review to describe the dual-task exercises that have been shown to be effective in improving balance and other physical characteristics such as decreased falling and walking speed in older adults. Review of intervention studies, in the Pubmed, PEDro, CINAHL and Web of Science databases. The search produced 498 references, 11 of which were identified with the description of the dual-task exercises, finding a wide variety of exercises, as well as great variability of outcome measures, discovering that the dual task is predominantly used for balance and walking speed training. All studies presented at least one group performing a double cognitive-motor task, some studies used the fixed priority modality in one group and variable in another, finding greater improvements in variable prioritisation. It can be said that dual-task training in older adults can improve balance and walking speed, which in turn reduces the risk of falling only if the planned dual-task training meets certain characteristics, such as training in specific concepts crucial in motor learning and dual-task training modalities.


Year study was published: 2020

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Factors Contributing to Single- and Dual-Task Timed “Up & Go” Test Performance in Middle-Aged and Older Adults Who Are Active and Dwell in the Community

Hui-Ya Chen, Pei-Fang Tang

H-Y. Chen, PT, PhD, School of Physical Therapy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Tai- wan, and Physical Therapy Room

Summary:

When comparing the factors that contribute to performance on the single- and dual-task (serial subtraction or carrying water) TUG tests in 64 participants the following factors were found to be associated with better performance on all TUG tests (single- and dual-task): younger age, hip extensor weakness, walking speed, general mental function, and Stroop scores for word and color. However, factors contributing to solely to dual-task TUG were influenced by age and focused attention, specifically for carrying water and serial subtraction, respectively. These results suggest the importance of the combined use of the 3 TUG tests.

Year study was published: 2015

Mean age of participants in study: 71.6 years old

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Investigating the Acute Effect of an Aerobic Dance Exercise Program on Neuro-Cognitive Function in the Elderly

Ken Kimura, Noriko Hozumi 

Summary: This study was comparing two types of aerobic dance exercises: a workout that consisted of several patterns of movement vs. a workout consisting of similar patterns of movement, but the patterns were joined to forma long choreographic routine/dance. The results of this study concluded that the executive cognitive network was facilitated in the choreographic routine workout due to the complex motor functions with a dual-task nature used in this workout group. The choreographic routine seems to improve actions that facilitate attentional control and even memory processes.

Year study was published: 2012

Mean age of participants in study: 70.7 years old

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Balance Confidence and Fear of Falling Avoidance Behavior Are Most Predictive of Falling in Older Adults

by Merrill R. Landers, Sarrie Oscar, Jessica Sasoka & Kyle Vaughn

Summary:

Physical-based measures (Berg Balance Scale, Sensory Organization Test, Timed “Up & Go”, and Dynamic Gait Index) as well as psychological-based measures (Falls Efficacy Scale, Activity Specific Balance Confidence Scale, and Fear of Falling Avoidance Behavior Questionnaire) were assessed during this study to determine which variable(s) were most predictive of falls in older adults. The results of this study concluded that balance confidence was the best predictor of falling, followed by fear of falling avoidance behavior, and the Time “Up & Go” (TUG). Fall history, presence of pathology, and physical tests did not predict falling. The study also concluded that psychological factors (balance confidence and fear avoidance) were stronger predictors of future falls than physical factors (gait, balance, visual acuity, etc.)

Year study was published: 2018

Mean age of participants in study: 72.2 years

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